Diesel Injectors are used for filling diesel fuel into a diesel engine or compression ignition engine. This fuel is directly injected into the engine with the help of Injectors attached to the cylinders of a diesel machine.
This fuel injecting system basically consists of the following parts – Fuel injection apparatus (nozzle and nozzle holder), fuel supply line, Air-intake valve, and diesel engine exhaust valve.
The function of the parts of diesel injectors is as follows:
An apparatus for fuel injection: Each cylinder of a compression ignition engine is connected to a fuel injector and therefore each cylinder has its own diesel supply line which carries the diesel from the diesel tank to the diesel engine. The fuel injector consists of a nozzle and a nozzle holder.
1. Diesel supply line: Each cylinder of a diesel engine has its own diesel supply line which carries the diesel from the diesel tank to the CI engine.
2. An intake valve: The role of an intake valve is to suck air into the combustion chamber. The air blends with the condensed diesel thus strengthening the combustion.
3. Diesel engine exhaust valve: It plays the important role of eliminating the emissions produced by the diesel combustion chamber.
Once the fuel comes in contact with the injectors, it becomes extremely pressurized. This pressure is created by a little pump that the injector is connected to. This little pump enables air to pass through the injector, consequently pressurizing the fuel. The highly pressurized fuel enters and flows down to the body of the nozzle holder and finally into the nozzle passage. A diesel injector has a needle valve that is closely connected to the spring located in the body of the injector. The compression nut stresses the spring to produce spring pressure and injector opening pressure simultaneously.
Once the needle valve opens, the fuel is sprayed by the diesel injector through the tiny nozzle situated in the combustion chamber of an engine cylinder. The cluster of little holes in the nozzle ensures its equal distribution into the combustion chamber of the cylinder. The tiny holes are specially designed and arranged to break the fuel into tiny drops so that they can burn readily.
Next, the air intake valves carry air into the combustion chamber and gets combined with condensed diesel thus intensifying the combustion. Now the fuel engine exhaust valve gets rid of the emissions generated by the fuel combustion chamber. The return diesel line gets rid of the surplus diesel fuel by bringing it back to the fuel tank from the fuel combustion chamber.
This is how a complex diesel injector functions. Diesel injectors are known as the most intricate elements of a diesel engine. It has the ability to endure high pressure and temperature produced inside the cylinder and circulates equal quantity of fuel to the cylinder thereby ensuring smooth functioning of a powerful diesel engine.